The excitement of the Gold Rush is in this show; the feverish travel across the country to find treasure, and the life of the prospectors. Bash shows the methods of mining with rocker and with gold pan, and then goes on film to visit Columbia, California, where rich strikes of gold were made. An old prospector takes her to the river and shows her how he extracts gold by rocker and pan, equipment which is as good now as it was then. Songs include “I Wish I Were Single” and “Clementine.”
Topic of discussion on this program is the actual organization of the major parties. Our lecturer considers the national characteristics of parties as opposed to the idea that each of them is a conglomeration of local political machines. He concludes with a look at the role the private citizen can and does play in party organization.
The desert plains of central Idaho bore silent witness to many events in history – the coming of the Oregon Trail, the wars between the whites and the Indians, the events of the Old West, Today they are witnessing a change that is far more important – the coming of atomic power. On the lava plains of central Idaho is the National Reactor Testing Station, famous for “firsts” in nuclear energy. Here electricity was first generated from atomic energy and atomic power first was used to light a town. Principles of nuclear submarine propulsion were worked out in “a ship on the desert” in Idaho. “Challenge” visits the National Reactor Testing Station to look at a power plant of the future, a reactor that makes more nuclear fuel than it consumes. The principle is not perpetual motion. This reactor takes the part of uranium that is not fissionable fuel (more than 99 per cent of the total) and converts it into plutonium, a man made element that is a good nuclear fuel. Because the reactor “breeds” plutonium it is called a “breeder” reactor – Experimental Breeder Reactor-II. How this breeding is accomplished, and how fuel for EBR-II is fabricated by remote control, is explained in this program.
A few years ago history was made at the United States Atomic Energy Commission’s Argonne National Laboratory where this program was filmed. This is the story of the dedicated research scientists whose search for truth ended a fallacy in chemistry which had existed for more than half a century. Although their efforts were not as exciting as the discovery that the world was round and not flat, the scientists at Argonne disproved that a group of elements called “inert gases” would not react with other elements to form compounds. This is not to imply that these elements – helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon – did not have utility. Helium is the gas used to send balloons aloft. Neon, argon, and krypton are used in light bulbs: xenon in high speed photographic cells; and radon in medical therapy to irradiate cancer cells. What the Argonne scientists investigated was the atomic structure of these elements. For years it had been falsely believed that the electrons within these elements could not combine with electrons within the atoms of other elements. Following a report of Canadian scientists, the researchers at Argonne found that, instead of picking up electrons from other atoms, some of these so-called “inert gases” actually gave up electrons when combined with other elements. Using Krypton, xenon, and radon, in separate experiments, the Argonne scientists succeeded in making compounds which previously were unheard of. In fact, they also found at least one xenon compound for which they weren’t looking. This was xenon trioxide, a powerful explosive, made from xenon and oxygen. Many new uses will doubtless be found for these new compounds, according to the scientists. One might be the use of xenon tetrafluoride to store large quantities of fluorine as an oxidizing agent in rocket fuel.
In this program, Criminologist Joseph D. Lohman charts the growth and increasing complexity of the crime problem which has accompanied the development of an urban, industrial culture in the U.S. He shows a corresponding inadequacy in the control and treatment of crime and criminals. An interviewed inmate points out these inadequacies and the need for individual treatment, which is pointed out by Harrison and Lohman, also. Harrison notes that differences in crimes and criminals indicate needs for individual treatment.
In this episode, Dr. Smith, Jr., explains the relationship between language and culture. He points out that there is no such thing as a “primitive” language; all languages have the same amount of history behind them. He reveals why all languages are about equally complex, and discusses language patterns and how they affect the learning of a language.
This program is a summary and conclusion of the course. Dr. Smith first briefly hits highlights of the major religions. Then he discusses some of the attitudinal changes that may have resulted from the course.
The French horn, capable of producing melody, and the piano, a percussion instrument able to produce symphonic effects, are instruments which contrast with each other and blend exquisitely. To illustrate this musical partnership the program features John Barrows, French horn, and Vera Brodsky, piano. This film deals with the blending and contrasting of voices in composition and Mr. Barrows points out how composers have capitalized on this partnership.
Explains that diversity is part of the Protestant tradition and belief. States that although there is no single Protestant view, it is the Protestant heritage to drive toward excellence in education. Notes that any Protestant view holds that some appropriate way must be found of teaching in schools, that man does not live by bread alone, and that God exists and is sovereign. Feature personality is Merrimon Cunninggim, director of the Danforth Foundation in St. Louis.
In a Catholic school the realities of God and Christ, the guidance, teaching and influences of the Church, the Christian ideals are presupposed and within this framework all physical and intellectual disciplines have their place. Includes scenes of an elementary classroom. Features Dean Robert J. Henie, S.J., of St. Louis University. (kinescope)
Discusses methods of controlling nuclear testing. Outlines the obligation of the United States in assuming leadership in the control of such testing. Points out possible effects of continued tests. Makes suggestions concerning what can be done by various groups to diminish the dangers posed by continued testing of nuclear weapons. Features Norman Cousins, editor of the Saturday Review.
Bash compares the chores children have today with those children had a few generations ago as members of a pioneer family. She describes a typical day and tells of the work the family members do and their entertainment. Lillian Patterson performs the imaginary dreams of a pioneer child. Songs include “Pony Lullaby” and “Springfield Mountain.”
Dance is a universal experience, and Miss Myers introduces the series with paintings, sculptures and film clips showing ethnic dances throughout history and the world. Following this, she presents the three major forms of dance – ethnic, ballet, and modern. To illustrate these, the Ximenez-Vargas Company performs two European ethnic dances. They are followed by Melissa Hayden and Jacques D’Amboise, who execute a 17th century court dance, the predecessor of pure classical ballet which is represented by the pas de deux from The Nutcracker Suite. As the French court and manners of the 17th century affected later ballet, so today’s social developments and conditions affect modern dance. Daniel Negrin performs an illustrative dance satire to introduce the audience to forms of the modern dance.
Traces the history of computer development from the first mechanical calculators to ENIAC, the first electronic computer. Explains in lay terms how a modern digital computer stores both data and instructions in number form.
Demonstrates the role of perception in handling the processing information from the environment and the way in which our personalities affect our perception. Reviews the research of Dr. Herman Witkin of the State University of New York Medical Center, Dr. Eleanor Gibson of Cornell University, and Dr. Richard D. Walk of George Washington University.
Discusses the transition in art from realism to the abstract. Explains the reasons underlying abstract and non-objective painting. Demonstrates important points with illustrations drawn in chalk and paint. Uses prints of abstract painting to clarify and develop a greater understanding of the artist's interpretation. (WQED) Kinescope.
Discusses abstract art and the elements in a machine society which have furthered its development. Discusses the influences of Cezanne, the cubists, and the futurists. Uses charcoal drawings to distinguish expressionistic from geometric abstraction.
Continues the discussion of abstract art begun in ABSTRACT ART: PART 1. Discusses inspiration, technique, and communication in abstract painting. Features Stuart Davis, American abstract painter, and shows works by Davis and by Jackson Pollock. (Hofstra College and WOR-TV) Kinescope.
Discusses the purpose, successes, and failures of NATO, the prospects for extending its economic functions, and ways of making it more effective. Gives the history of NATO's formation and explains the financial contribution of each member country. (WTTW) Kinescope.
Discusses the formation of the Afro-Asian bloc, the declaration issued by it, and the possible influences this organization may have in world politics. Considers official United States reaction to the bloc and the bloc's possible influence on the formation of United States foreign policy. (WTTW) Kinescope.
Discusses attempts, from the Roman Empire to the present, at European unification. Examines the progress in economic unification through the Schuman Plan. Appraises the effects on the United States on the degree of unification in Europe. (WTTW) Kinescope.
resents the scope of international exchange programs now in process. Explains the various types of exchange. Discusses the Fulbright scholarships and shows a film on the experiment in international living in Austria. (WTTW) Kinescope.
Presents a synthesizing of many aspects of education as discussed in the preceding programs. Points out how education can be used most effectively in activating man's potential. Features Mr. Frank Laubach, Mr. Robert Hutchins, and Mr. Aldous Huxley. (KETC) Kinescope.
Analyzes advertising in twentieth century America, and its dual function as mirror and molder of our culture. Demonstrates that admen have long been fluent with the familiar slogan, jingle, testimonial, and doctor's endorsement--by which values and dreams, rather than commodities, are made the fare of public consumption. Reminds us that we must guard against the temptation to make advertising the scapegoat for our own materialism, for admen can erect and support only the images that society tacitly permits.
Dozens of marine animals are shown in action in the natural habitats as Dr. John F. Storr explains the wonderful adaptations of sea creatures to their environment. With dramatic emphasis on devices for escaping physical damage by wily enemies or power of waves, Dr. Storr demonstrates the armor, camouflage, speed and agility of these animals.
Discusses the conditions and effects of drug addiction among young people. Reveals how an individual may be enticed to use narcotics. Outlines some of the causes of addiction and considers the possibilities of treatment and cure. (WTTW) Kinescope.
Portrays the psychology at work in the use of alcohol by adolescents. A documentary approach is taken in presenting the origin, development, and results of an actual research project, "A Study of the Use of Alcohol Among High School Students", made by the Hofstra College Bureau of Social Research. (Hofstra College & WPIX) Kinescope.
Discusses the nature and importance od adult learning, and points out the fallacy of thinking that the school is the only place where education occurs. Explains that adult learning is the gaining of wisdom and understanding and is for everybody, regardless of formal schooling. States that "adults are more educable than children as children are more trainable than adults," and stresses that when we cease to learn our mind starts to die. (Palmer Films) Film.
Stresses recognizing adverse conditions as they appear in the traffic picture. Describes the safety factors involved for utmost driving efficiency in snow and ice. Discusses the special problems of rain as more fatalities occur on wet streets than on snowy or icy streets. Show the changes in traffic conditions in fog, on mountains and in deserts. (Cincinnati Public Schools and WCET) Kinescope.
Describes the lands of East Africa that are members of the British Commonwealth. Discusses variations in degree of self government and in the composition of populations. A native of Tanganuika presents his views on independence for his homeland and outlines a course of action. (WTTW) Kinescope.
Outlines the political history of the Congo and discusses the success of the Belgian colonial policy. A native of the Congo proposes a program for more self-government of the people. Stresses the economic importance of the Congo to Belgium and to the United States. (WTTW) Kinescope.
In this program, criminologist Joseph D. Lohman explains that a major portion of the crime problem is a result of what society does about initial and relatively less serious crime. An interviewed inmate tells that he was less damaged by his prior criminal experience than by his prison experiences. Public sentiment has not kept pace with the progress of penological attitudes, say Lohman and Bates. This is a cause of prison experiences making an inmate more dangerous to the public. They emphasize that a prison must make offenders self-reliant, rather than dependent, and indicate methods by which this can be accomplished.
Special Guest: Dr. Caldecott is a geneticist with the cereal crops brand of the United States Department of Agriculture and an associate professor in the Department of Agronomy and Plant Genetics at the University of Minnesota.There is an area of scientific endeavor that will serve to illustrate one important method in which atomic energy is being utilized by agriculture scientist. This area envelopes the science of genetics. Dr. Warren F. Witzig and Dr. Caldecott discuss this science and the use of atomic energy in this area to provide basic information of life and life processes for the use of the applied agriculturalist. Many examples of how radioactivity has helped the agriculturalist are demonstrated in this program.
Discusses agriculture in terms of the raising of hogs, beef, and dairy cattle. Explains that corn is the vital link between the soil and the production of these animals. States that the large production of corn and farm animals in the United States enables us to eat 61 times as much meat per person per year as the average Japanese citizen.
In this program, Dr. Sumner uses maps and graphs to demonstrate another reason why the soil is considered to be the most precious of all natural resources. He draws the attention to the variety of crops which we raise in large quantities within our borders. He gives production figures added meaning with descriptions of the agricultural production of Japan and India.
Bash tells of the new state’s mountains, tundra and the cities on the coast. She tells of the modern farmer, salmon fishing, mining and the Eskimos. Her songs include “Greenland Fishery,” “Sacramento” and “Jennie Jenkins.”
Explains the effect of alcohol and drugs on the driver. Points out the necessity of severe punishment for the driver who drinks and what can be done to improve the situation. Discusses the social drinker and teenagers and drinking. Describes the hazard of drugs, including doctors' prescriptions for various ailments as well as narcotics. (Cincinnati Public Schools and WCET) Kinescope.
Rain does not always evaporate immediately after falling. Dora tells a story of some raindrops with the help of Mr. Robinson's illustrations of some raindrops who had a series of adventures on their way to a distant lake where they learned how to do the "dance of the happy spray."
This is a legend about the sun goddess – on whom the world depends for light – who became angered and hid in a celestial cave and refused to shed her light on the world. A rooster’s crow, a fire and a big mirror were used to lure her from her cave. Mr. Mikami illustrates the story with a brush painting of a rooster.
Friction in the Old World led to war. The USA tried to maintain neutrality, but with each passing month the problems created became more and more thorny. Finally, the nation was drawn into the conflict. With amazing speed and efficiency the country mobilized. Its participation in World War I was the deciding factor in bringing victory to the Allies.
Analyzes the score of a symphony and explains why it was scored as it was. Compares this symphony to a painting and to an austere essay and shows how the background, the highlights, and the essential figures are developed. Analyzes a composer's motives and illustrates their orchestral expression. (University of Rochester) Film.
Defines experimentalism as a systematic theory of education stemming from the work of John Dewey. States that the experimentalist turns to experience rather than away from it. Indicates that intelligence, operating in quite human ways in relation to quite human problems, will give the answers that are needed to bring the newly born infant to maturity. Elucidates the experimentalist viewpoint, answers objections, and comments on a film sequence of a "progressive" classroom. Featured personality is H. Gordon Hullfish, professor of education at Ohio State University.
In this program, criminologist Joseph D. Lohman addresses the untouched correctional frontier between pre-conviction detention, and imprisonment in state institutions. Films show the variety of activities that must be incorporated in a county system. Powers and Lohman delve into the elements necessary for an integrated county system and Lohman and Wright establish how such a system works.
Hardly had the exultation of victory and accomplishment cooled, when the nation found itself face to face with an old problem, which it had hoped was a dead issue. The application of California for statehood was not covered by the Missouri Compromise. The Southerners fought to hold their equal advantage in the Senate – they had long ago lost the House. In the end they had to take the “half loaf” which the Compromise of 1850 offered, but they were unhappy and fearful of the future. Yet a few years of prosperity lulled all into a feeling of security and hopes began to build. Then came the question of the route of the transcontinental railroad. Next, the Kansas-Nebraska Act. From 1854 the way led steadily downhill toward sectional conflict, this time with guns, rather than orators, barking. The Republican Party was uncompromisingly a Northern, anti-slavery faction – the last real bond which had hitherto resisted sectional friction was now gone, the national political party. The South was outnumbered in the legislature. Its victory in the judiciary – the Dred Scott decision – only roused its opponents to more determined action. The success of the Lincoln candidacy could mean the coup de grace. The South conditioned itself for that possibility.
Shows how different species of marine animals or animals and plants develop. Defines symbiosis and commensalism. Illustrates these phenomena with living specimens of crabs, sea cucumbers, and starfish. Demonstrates another marine animal association which involves escape reactions. Uses film clips to show a brittle star-hermit crab reaction and the activities of a sea anemone that swims when touched by a certain starfish. Points out the significance of these reactions and the research being directed toward better understanding of the behavior of seashore animals. (KCTS) Kinescope.
Dr. Maria Piers answers the following question: Should children have pets? What do animals mean to children? She then leads into a discussion of bears, real and stuffed; friendly and fear-inspiring animals; and, pets neglected and over-protected.