Topic of discussion on this program is the actual organization of the major parties. Our lecturer considers the national characteristics of parties as opposed to the idea that each of them is a conglomeration of local political machines. He concludes with a look at the role the private citizen can and does play in party organization.
Discusses the purpose, successes, and failures of NATO, the prospects for extending its economic functions, and ways of making it more effective. Gives the history of NATO's formation and explains the financial contribution of each member country. (WTTW) Kinescope.
Discusses the formation of the Afro-Asian bloc, the declaration issued by it, and the possible influences this organization may have in world politics. Considers official United States reaction to the bloc and the bloc's possible influence on the formation of United States foreign policy. (WTTW) Kinescope.
Discusses attempts, from the Roman Empire to the present, at European unification. Examines the progress in economic unification through the Schuman Plan. Appraises the effects on the United States on the degree of unification in Europe. (WTTW) Kinescope.
resents the scope of international exchange programs now in process. Explains the various types of exchange. Discusses the Fulbright scholarships and shows a film on the experiment in international living in Austria. (WTTW) Kinescope.
Describes the lands of East Africa that are members of the British Commonwealth. Discusses variations in degree of self government and in the composition of populations. A native of Tanganuika presents his views on independence for his homeland and outlines a course of action. (WTTW) Kinescope.
Outlines the political history of the Congo and discusses the success of the Belgian colonial policy. A native of the Congo proposes a program for more self-government of the people. Stresses the economic importance of the Congo to Belgium and to the United States. (WTTW) Kinescope.
Outlines Argentine history and discusses the political and economic climate, with prospects for the future. Emphasizes Argentina's problems and possibilities. Shows pictures of the land and the people. (WTTW) Kinescope.
Does geography make a difference in political thought? Dr. Parkinson discusses his book Evolution of Political Thought, and suggests that geography, and geographical isolation, do make a difference in political thought and practice. He traces the cycle which goes from a primitive paternal structure through a monarchy to an aristocracy, then to a dictatorship, then back to monarchy. Although he sees this as a fairly consistent pattern, Professor Parkinson does not believe that this is, in effect, historical determinism. Men can change his destiny, he says, and the experiments in democracy, although they have not been going long enough to suggest a definite trend, prove man’s freedom of choice. In fitting the Soviet Union into this pattern, Professor Parkinson remarks that it could be called a technological monarchy.
Discusses the theory of political campaigns, and simulates, with actors, a committee outlining the campaign strategy for a candidate. Covers such issues as the techniques to be used, to whom they will appeal, and financing the campaign. Gives a general summary and evaluation of party campaigns and strategies. (University of Michigan Television) Kinescope.
Mr. Peck opens the program by introducing a film clip which shows the raising of the free Indian flag at the UN. Mr. Talbot, Executive Director of American Universities Field Staff, explains the complexity of India. The discussion begins with a consideration of the Congress Party and its problems since independence, with references to Gandhi and Nehru. It is agreed that a real understanding of India depends on a knowledge of the country’s internal development. A five-minute film illustrates efforts to control malaria and the contrast between old and new methods of agriculture. It is concluded that the best way to fight Communism is to strengthen India internally, rather than press her to declare against Red China.
Discusses the history of Arab Nationalism, Arab Nationalistic competition, and Republican versus Monarchical Nationalism. Surveys the use of Nasser in Egypt. Explains the role of anti-colonialism and anti Zionism in the nationalistic rise of the Arab World. Illustrates with film clips, pictures, and maps.
Surveys the rise of nationalism in China and India. Explains the role of Western influence in their struggles. Discusses the reactions of China and India to the impact of the West and the divergent roads traveled to nationalism.
What problems are posed by the underdeveloped countries to the rest of the world? Mr. Malik begins by describing the standard of living, and what independence from colonial status has meant for these countries. Many of these must accept economic aid, raising the question of how they can accept it and remain independent. Mr. Malik believes that there are fundamental principles which must be common to all nations, whatever their social or political structure may be. These principles could in part be contributed by countries giving aid. Both the new and the established countries recognize the need for economic groupings similar to the OEEC, or the European Coal and Steel Community, although small nations are handicapped in participating by a lack of experience and of funds, a disproportionately large portion of which is devoted to the maintenance of an army. This, concludes Mr. Malik, is one reason why development is slower than it could be.
What is the position of the Near Eastern countries today? Dr. Malik introduces the topic by describing why he feels education is so essential to their development. Theoretical values and general policies must be developed before specific problems can be attacked, such as the problems which Islam will have in adjusting to the modern world. It is no longer possible to return to pure Islam, free from the influences of the West, he believes. The Arab nations are anxious to become substantial, self-respecting members of the world community. They look for a leader who will give them direction and guidance without forcing them away from their traditional values. Of the revolutions which have upset the Arab world since the end World War II, Dr. Malik says these are usually due to circumstances which have become intolerable. At the end of the program, Dr. Malik presents a plea for understanding and toleration of the Arab community, as it attempts to establish itself in the modern world.
Charles Malik, President of the General Assembly of the United Nations and ambassador from Lebanon discusses criticism and truth in world diplomacy. He is joined by Dr. Richard Cottam, Department of Political Science, University of Pittsburgh, and Mr. T.F.X. Higgins, Executive Director of the Foreign Policy Association of Pittsburgh.
This program traces the history of the Communist Party in the United States. The dramatic sequences feature a re-enactment of the Bridgeman Convention in 1921 and show how the Communist Party of the United States was controlled by the Communist International, and directed by it. Benjamin Gitlow, former General Secretary of the Communist Party of America and American representative to the Comintern in the 1920’s, is a special guest on the program. Mr. Gitlow was twice candidate for Vice President of the USA on the Communist Party ticket. Mr. Gitlow was expelled from the Communist Party of America in 1929, as a result of his refusal to accept a directive ordering himto yield leadership of the Party.
Discusses the sequence of events that takes place when the national political convention is underway. Includes consideration of the role of the contemporary chairman, the "keynoter", general speeches presented as time fillers, reports from the four main committees, role call for nominations, nominating and seconding speeches, and demonstrations for the candidates. Presents films of the departure of Alabama and Mississippi delegates in 1948 and the nomination of Franklin Roosevelt in 1940. (Dynamic Films) Film.
Dr. Wriston discusses diplomacy as practiced in a democracy. He explains the importance of public opinion as an influence in foreign policy and how communications media have aided in public understanding. Presents views on maintaining continuity of foreign policy under changing administrations. Concludes by pointing out the various problems involved in planning foreign policy. Hosted by Dr. Henry M. Wriston, former President of Brown University and Chairman of the American Assembly.
On his PLATFORM programs, Dr. Thomas A. Dooley speaks his mind on the image of America in Southeast Asia. He calls for a renewal of the traditional American approach to under-developed countries --the approach through American individuals and voluntary organizations rather than heavy reliance on government agencies. “The most powerful tool we have is the human personality. Education is the most important thing we have to offer to Asia, and people are the only ones who can bring education. Books and propaganda leaflets cannot do it. The tremendous value that I wish more people in Washington would realize is the value of the individual person. If we would just flood these countries with individual young American men and women we could accomplish a great deal. We need people who will live and work with these people in their villages.” Dr. Dooley points out that the Communists realize that the future of Asia lies in the villages. They are making an intensive effort through local people to identify America with the hated French colonialism. He says the Communists attack the spirit of America and we too often counter with mere boasting about our material achievements. Dr. Dooley also discusses the “Great White Fleet” which he feels is going to cause more harm than good. He believes the term “Great White Fleet” is an unfortunate one since it fails to recognize the Asian distrust of the white man and hatred of colonialism. Fleets were instruments of imperialism in the past and a great aircraft carrier in a harbor of Asia or Africa even if it is loaded with medicine conveys another meaning to the people. His major criticism of the “Great White Fleet” is, however, that it is not a “grass roots” program designed to be an integral long-range part of the underdeveloped countries.
Discusses the early steps in the nominating process. Explains and illustrates the makeup of the national committee, the role of the national chairman, the importance of selecting a favorable convention site, apportionment of delegates, and state, county, and precinct organizations. Discusses a cartoon of the county chairman. (Dynamic Films) Film.
In this program, Mrs. Roosevelt talks of her husband and his philosophy, religion, friendships and courage. She tells of D-Day in the White House, Pearl Harbor Day, and FDR’s moments of relaxation. She talks about Communism, war, leadership in the world today, and about the future.
The panel takes up the importance of the national convention in drafting a party platform and important intra-party conflicts which have developed over the drafting of such platforms at recent conventions. Along these same lines, the panel considers the procedure used to draft the platform and the question of whether the platform is drafted to represent the policy position of the candidate or for the candidate to stand on.
A panel here considers the advantages and disadvantages of the convention systems as it now operates. Speakers also discuss suggestions for improving the convention as a nominating device, alternatives methods for nominating a president and vice president, and the problems and advantages of these alternatives.
Traces the history of imperialism from the 15th Century to the present, Explains the reasons which lead to empire building by nation states. Discusses the geographical, economic, and political changes brought about by colonialism.
Mr. Albert Ravenholt, correspondent of the American Universities Field Staff and staff correspondent for the Chicago Daily News, and Dr. George A. Peek, Jr., assistant professor of political science at the University of Michigan and coordinator for the series, focus their first discussion of the "tension areas" in the Far East on Formosa. Mr. Ravenholt, considered one of the nation's best-informed men on the Far East, comments on the important strategic position of Formosa, the complicated internal "police state" condition of the Island, and how the situation affects the United States. He explains that the Chinese communists are building up their forces along the China coastline. They may be planning to attach Formosa directly, to capture the Chinese Nationalist held islands closer to the mainland, or to force a diplomatic settlement concerning the possession of Formosa. The latter would then involve the issues of recognition of Red China and admission of that country into the United Nations. The United States is sending to Formosa economic and military aid totaling three to four million dollars per year, Mr. Ravenholt points out. This aid not only consists of building up the defenses of the Island, but also improving the diet of the Nationalists soldiers, improving their uniforms, constructing air fields and bridges, and making agricultural improvements. Finally, Mr. Ravenholt stresses the need for the U.S. to begin thinking of what kind of support we are willing to extend to the Chinese Nationalists in the event of war, and the need for thinking about the kind of non-communist Chinese leadership which we would like to have evolve in the future.
Rabi and Viereck join Louis Lyons to discuss the freedom of the individual with their emphasis on the scientist and the artist. They agree there is no great cause for concern over the freedom today of the scientist or artist in terms of the freedoms and that they gain these freedoms through laws which bind them in their own professions. Included in the program is a spirited debate on scientific achievement and the necessity to combat mass determination of taste, particularly in the mass communications. Guests are Isidor I. Rabi, Higgins Professor of Physics, Columbia University; Nobel Prize winner in physics, 1944 and Peter Viereck, poet, professor of history, Mount Holyoke College; Pulitzer poet, 1949.
Mr. HV Kaltenborn, often called “Dean of American Commentators,” begins this program with a discussion of the United States’ role as an important force in world affairs as it came to be recognized at the time of Theodore Roosevelt. With Mrs. Dorothy Daniel, Pittsburgh journalist and broadcaster, Mr. Herb Morrison, Pittsburgh newscaster, and Mr. TFX Higgins, executive director of the Foreign Policy Association of Pittsburgh, he discusses the League of Nations, the Treaty of Versailles, Germany before World War I, dictators, Hitler, Mussolini, and dictatorship in the Western Hemisphere. He goes on to discuss colonialism and the USSR. In general, this program concerns itself with twentieth century history as seen through the eyes of a commentator.
Dr. Henry Steele Commager discusses the political thinking of today. Explains the desirability of the inductive or pragmatic approach to problems of politics and society. Discusses the concepts of majority and minority rule, loyalty, and security in terms of theoretical dangers, fundamental truths, and moral absolutes. Points out the importance of experience, reality, and actuality in judging political action. (WQED) Kinescope.
Dr. Henry Steele Commager and his guests discuss freedom and security in today's society. Defines freedom as a natural right, a practical necessity, and a way of living. Considers the problem of freedom, security, and loyalty on a national as well as local level. (WQED) Kinescope.
Dr. Commager lectures on the subject of nationalism as something Americans take for granted but as something that is actually new in history. He also clarifies nationalism as a blessing rather than a curse to mankind. He discusses his theory that American nationalism differs in important ways from European or even Asiatic. He shows how nationalism came about as suggesting what the US can should do to mitigate the ravages of nationalism generally.
The British colony of Hong Kong is the second "tension area" discussed by Mr. Ravenholt, Professor Peek, and their guest Dr. John W. Hall, director of the Center for Japanese Studies at the University of Michigan. Describing Hong Kong as a "window in the bamboo curtain," Mr. Ravenholt explains that the colony, made up of 76 islands and a peninsula, is the crossroads of the world where there is fairly free travel across the border into Red China. Here we are able to get a picture of what is happening in Communist China. The picture is not complete, he points out, but we are able to determine general trends in that vast country. It is now becoming apparent, according to Dr. Hall, that China is emerging as a major power for the first time in over 150 years. With this accumulation of power there is a natural "spilling over" into other countries such as North Korea. The grassroots level is the source of this new found power. The Communist Government of China has succeeded in organizing the peasantry. Mass organizations have been established with chapters in every village. Here the leaders are trying to change the Chinese society--trying to make it a community-centered society instead of the traditional family-centered society. The country has also been "westernized" and it now has the largest standing army in the world. Concluding the discussion, Mr. Ravenholt predicts that, in time, Red China will pose as a rival to the Soviet Union.
Discussion of Russia's industry and agriculture and what that means for Russia as a country and its potential threat to the United States. This is the second episode in the series and is the second out of three discussing Russia.
Mr. Peek suggests that the aspect of French politics most familiar and perplexing to Americans is the quick turnover of premiers. Mr. Wit states that this is less important than it seems, for through the rise and fall of twenty Prime Ministers, there were only four foreign ministers. A film shows French involvement abroad, toughing on French internal problems. It is agreed that France is an essential ally but no longer a first-class power. We should assist in bringing her commitment s into balance with her weakened capacity.
One of Miss Fosdick’s key points is that England’s allegiance to the Commonwealth countries comes before her allegiance to her other allies, including the United States. A film shows two of the strongest factors in recent British history –the blitz of London and Churchill. It is agreed that our differences with England are less significant than the policies we have in common and that we can learn a great deal from Britain’s long experience in international diplomacy.
Discusses the international aims of the Communist Party and methods used to achieve these aims. Portrays Lenin's establishment of the Third International. Also reenacts the development of the ideas of a Communist hierarchy and of the justification of the use of illegal apparatuses for seizing control. Explains Communist maneuvers during the second half of the 1920's and in the 1930's, the Popular Front and the activities during the Spanish Civil War. Concludes with a description of the policies after 1947 and the ultimate aims of the Communist Party.
Introduces the series AMERICAN POLITICS. Proposes to answer the following questions. (1) What are the nature, purpose, and methods of the major American political parties? (2) How are the parties' candidates nominated, including candidates for president and vice-president? (3) What have been the parties' records on the major issues of American politics? (KETC) Kinescope.
Senator Hubert Humphrey presents his views on the possibility of co-esistence between the Soviet Bloc and the West. He explains the nature and function of the United States Foreign Policy and the problems and possible answers in bringing about a mutually satisfactory relationship with the Soviet Union.
Discusses the primary system and its effect on the party system. Considers whether or not the primary system destroys party discipline, thus weakening the party, or, conversely does it give more power to the machine? (KETC) Kinescope.
Discusses the party records regarding individual freedom promised by the first amendment in the Bill of rights. Reviews the two parties' defense of these rights, especially in times when national security is threatened, and discusses the question of civil rights. (KETC) Kinescope.
Provides a kaleidoscopic preview of Communist history. Explains the basis for the series and establishes documentary sources. Uses reenactments to show the collaboration on the Communist Manifesto by Marx and Engels, the development of Marxism, and the founding of the First International. Discusses the fallacy in Marx's premise and concludes by introducing Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, later known as Lenin.
Considers the whys and wherefores of defense spending as related to both foreign policy and domestic economic policy. Discusses the question, "Is there a partisan...Democratic or Republican...answer to the question of defense spending?" (KETC) Kinescope.
America’s task is to stop imperialism. Communism is based on imperialism. What can we do? If we ally ourselves against Soviet imperialism we run into difficulty because of Nationalism and Colonialism. For instance, Portugal is our ally but a Portuguese colony in India wants to be our independent ally. Where is our loyalty? When faced with a choice such as this, our loyalty must remain with the countries which will protect the most people from aggression. And these problems are intensified because of atomic power. If we share it, will it alienate us from other powers? There is always the danger that if we give to nationalist nations, we cannot be sure that it will be used for peace. The basic problem lies in the fact that Soviet imperialism is ambiguous. What policy can we accept?
NOTE: Since this program was completed, France has joined the “atomic club.”
This program summarizes the major points which have been brought out in the series and evaluates Nationalism and Colonialism in terms of the basic problems now facing the world community – the paradox that he liberal idea of self-determination of nations may result in divisiveness and fragmentation of the world’s energies and resources at the very time when man’s power to unleash the forces of nature has made necessary the highest degree of international harmony and worldwide cooperation. How has the world community organized to deal with National-Colonial power? What is the future of Nationalism and Colonialism? These are the questions answered by Stoessinger in this program. Films of Philippine diplomat Carlos P. Romulo are included in this program.
Convention floor strategy, nomination speeches and voting procedures are discussed in this program. Other topics consider include the techniques and practices used to influence the delegates in favor of particular candidates, the functions of nominating and seconding speeches and special problems connected with the nomination of the vice president.
Discusses the origin, development, and rise of political interest groups in America and their role in the legislative process. Describes the organization and techniques of interest groups, and reviews legislation governing their activities. (University of Michigan Television) Kinescope.