Uses historic documentary motion pictures combined with newer Films sequences to tell the story of Berlin from the fall of the Third Reich to the building of the wall between East and West. Reviews the political events leading to the crisis in Berlin, shows the tragic consequences for the people of Berlin, and explains the reasons for the deep commitment of the Western powers to keep West Berlin free of communist control.
This program traces the history of the Communist Party in the United States. The dramatic sequences feature a re-enactment of the Bridgeman Convention in 1921 and show how the Communist Party of the United States was controlled by the Communist International, and directed by it. Benjamin Gitlow, former General Secretary of the Communist Party of America and American representative to the Comintern in the 1920’s, is a special guest on the program. Mr. Gitlow was twice candidate for Vice President of the USA on the Communist Party ticket. Mr. Gitlow was expelled from the Communist Party of America in 1929, as a result of his refusal to accept a directive ordering himto yield leadership of the Party.
Discusses the international aims of the Communist Party and methods used to achieve these aims. Portrays Lenin's establishment of the Third International. Also reenacts the development of the ideas of a Communist hierarchy and of the justification of the use of illegal apparatuses for seizing control. Explains Communist maneuvers during the second half of the 1920's and in the 1930's, the Popular Front and the activities during the Spanish Civil War. Concludes with a description of the policies after 1947 and the ultimate aims of the Communist Party.
Provides a kaleidoscopic preview of Communist history. Explains the basis for the series and establishes documentary sources. Uses reenactments to show the collaboration on the Communist Manifesto by Marx and Engels, the development of Marxism, and the founding of the First International. Discusses the fallacy in Marx's premise and concludes by introducing Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, later known as Lenin.
Reviews the progress of the Communist Party in Japan from pre-war days to the present. Includes film footage showing the release from prison of leading communist leaders just after World War II. Discusses the high degree of trained leadership, the party and the party's influence in politics.
The economics of imperialism from pure economic exploitation to modern economic aid and development are discussed in this program, beginning with Lenin’s thesis of imperialism as the last stage of capitalism and concluding with a view of Communist Russia as the modern imperialist. New nationalistic nations tend to perceive imperialism in the old light, and Lenin’s appeal today is predominantly emotional. Among the different forms of imperialism discussed are economic exploitation, by government and private interests; welfare; economic aid and development; and various combinations of these factors. How these forms developed indifferent areas is also discussed. Concludes Stoessinger, the economics of empire today is a mixed question. Western Imperialism is primarily historical, and the Soviet Union today is using Western policies of the Nineteenth century.
Discusses the Khrushchev era and interprets the policies of his regime. Provides details of Khrushchev's ascension to power and describes the differences between him and Stalin. Features special guest Merrill Spalding, research associate at the Hoover Institution and former professor of Russian history at Stanford University.
Features significant excerpts from the preceding 12 programs and lists the many myths of communism. These include (1) freedom for the working man, (2) communism as a genuine expression of the desire of subject peoples, (3) the dictatorship of the proletariat which became dictatorship over the proletariat, (4) Stalin and Lenin as heroes of the proletariat, and (5) communism as an independent political philosophy.
Stoessinger, professor of political science, and two guests, anthropologist Carleton Stevens Coon, and psychologist Otto Klineberg, present their views on why people organize into nation states and on the characteristics of the state. Mr. Klineberg feels that states arise from a desire for personal identification with a group out of which rises a sense of national identification. Mr. Coon believes that the state is an outgrowth of the mammalian instinct to have boundaries and economic securities. From small groups of families grow villages and ultimately states. Dr. Stoessinger emphasizes that the will to join must be present.
Does geography make a difference in political thought? Dr. Parkinson discusses his book Evolution of Political Thought, and suggests that geography, and geographical isolation, do make a difference in political thought and practice. He traces the cycle which goes from a primitive paternal structure through a monarchy to an aristocracy, then to a dictatorship, then back to monarchy. Although he sees this as a fairly consistent pattern, Professor Parkinson does not believe that this is, in effect, historical determinism. Men can change his destiny, he says, and the experiments in democracy, although they have not been going long enough to suggest a definite trend, prove man’s freedom of choice. In fitting the Soviet Union into this pattern, Professor Parkinson remarks that it could be called a technological monarchy.
Discusses the theory of political campaigns, and simulates, with actors, a committee outlining the campaign strategy for a candidate. Covers such issues as the techniques to be used, to whom they will appeal, and financing the campaign. Gives a general summary and evaluation of party campaigns and strategies. (University of Michigan Television) Kinescope.
Discusses the history of Arab Nationalism, Arab Nationalistic competition, and Republican versus Monarchical Nationalism. Surveys the use of Nasser in Egypt. Explains the role of anti-colonialism and anti Zionism in the nationalistic rise of the Arab World. Illustrates with film clips, pictures, and maps.
Surveys the rise of nationalism in China and India. Explains the role of Western influence in their struggles. Discusses the reactions of China and India to the impact of the West and the divergent roads traveled to nationalism.
What is the position of the Near Eastern countries today? Dr. Malik introduces the topic by describing why he feels education is so essential to their development. Theoretical values and general policies must be developed before specific problems can be attacked, such as the problems which Islam will have in adjusting to the modern world. It is no longer possible to return to pure Islam, free from the influences of the West, he believes. The Arab nations are anxious to become substantial, self-respecting members of the world community. They look for a leader who will give them direction and guidance without forcing them away from their traditional values. Of the revolutions which have upset the Arab world since the end World War II, Dr. Malik says these are usually due to circumstances which have become intolerable. At the end of the program, Dr. Malik presents a plea for understanding and toleration of the Arab community, as it attempts to establish itself in the modern world.
Charles Malik, President of the General Assembly of the United Nations and ambassador from Lebanon discusses criticism and truth in world diplomacy. He is joined by Dr. Richard Cottam, Department of Political Science, University of Pittsburgh, and Mr. T.F.X. Higgins, Executive Director of the Foreign Policy Association of Pittsburgh.
On his PLATFORM programs, Dr. Thomas A. Dooley speaks his mind on the image of America in Southeast Asia. He calls for a renewal of the traditional American approach to under-developed countries --the approach through American individuals and voluntary organizations rather than heavy reliance on government agencies. “The most powerful tool we have is the human personality. Education is the most important thing we have to offer to Asia, and people are the only ones who can bring education. Books and propaganda leaflets cannot do it. The tremendous value that I wish more people in Washington would realize is the value of the individual person. If we would just flood these countries with individual young American men and women we could accomplish a great deal. We need people who will live and work with these people in their villages.” Dr. Dooley points out that the Communists realize that the future of Asia lies in the villages. They are making an intensive effort through local people to identify America with the hated French colonialism. He says the Communists attack the spirit of America and we too often counter with mere boasting about our material achievements. Dr. Dooley also discusses the “Great White Fleet” which he feels is going to cause more harm than good. He believes the term “Great White Fleet” is an unfortunate one since it fails to recognize the Asian distrust of the white man and hatred of colonialism. Fleets were instruments of imperialism in the past and a great aircraft carrier in a harbor of Asia or Africa even if it is loaded with medicine conveys another meaning to the people. His major criticism of the “Great White Fleet” is, however, that it is not a “grass roots” program designed to be an integral long-range part of the underdeveloped countries.
Traces the history of imperialism from the 15th Century to the present, Explains the reasons which lead to empire building by nation states. Discusses the geographical, economic, and political changes brought about by colonialism.
America’s task is to stop imperialism. Communism is based on imperialism. What can we do? If we ally ourselves against Soviet imperialism we run into difficulty because of Nationalism and Colonialism. For instance, Portugal is our ally but a Portuguese colony in India wants to be our independent ally. Where is our loyalty? When faced with a choice such as this, our loyalty must remain with the countries which will protect the most people from aggression. And these problems are intensified because of atomic power. If we share it, will it alienate us from other powers? There is always the danger that if we give to nationalist nations, we cannot be sure that it will be used for peace. The basic problem lies in the fact that Soviet imperialism is ambiguous. What policy can we accept?
NOTE: Since this program was completed, France has joined the “atomic club.”
This program summarizes the major points which have been brought out in the series and evaluates Nationalism and Colonialism in terms of the basic problems now facing the world community – the paradox that he liberal idea of self-determination of nations may result in divisiveness and fragmentation of the world’s energies and resources at the very time when man’s power to unleash the forces of nature has made necessary the highest degree of international harmony and worldwide cooperation. How has the world community organized to deal with National-Colonial power? What is the future of Nationalism and Colonialism? These are the questions answered by Stoessinger in this program. Films of Philippine diplomat Carlos P. Romulo are included in this program.
Discusses the origin, development, and rise of political interest groups in America and their role in the legislative process. Describes the organization and techniques of interest groups, and reviews legislation governing their activities. (University of Michigan Television) Kinescope.
Discusses the voting behavior of the public in the 1952 election. Compares the public participation in the 1952 election with participation in other countries. Classifies the eligible voters into three groups, and discusses significant aspects of each group. Presents reasons for people voting as they do. Reviews the shifts in parties controlling the federal government since 1916. (University of Michigan Television) Kinescope.
In this discussion, Dr. Eldersveld emphasizes the necessity for party organization and discusses the major aspects of it. He also gives examples of typical patterns of organization at the national, state and local level. Finally he discusses some of the criticisms of American political party organization including charges that they are not democratic and responsible, that they are not effectively organized and that he party organizations are not run by the type of leadership the people want.
In this lecture, Dr. Eldersveld describes some of the party organization in foreign countries, particularly those of European nations. He points out the dominating control exercised by the party in communistic countries and the relationship of this type of control to the type of government of those countries.
Discusses the criticisms of the present party system and evaluates proposed changes. Points out the changes in the election system that would be necessary for any party reform. Suggests that any reforms would depend on greater public participation in the parties, which in turn would create less need for party reform. (University of Michigan Television) kinescope.
Presents an historical survey of colonialism as practiced by Britain and France. Discusses the methods of rule and the phases of colonization of each. Uses film clips, phots and charts to show how each has moved from direct colonial rule to cooperation with their colonies.
Reviews the activities of the United States in the area of colonialism. Discusses the colonies of the U.S. past and present. Outlines the course of action taken in helping the various territories in achieving self-government.
Discusses present day attitudes toward colonialism and how they differ from the colonial ideal of the past. Sir Andrew Cohen, ex-colonial official in Africa, answers questions concerning the making of colonial policy, how the colonial mind has changed and what the modern colonial official sees as his function.
Stoessinger analyzes the modern colonial mind in a time when “Colonial Official” has become a bad word phrase. He interviews French and Belgian colonial officials in an attempt to show the changing role of the colonial official in the world today. The modern colonial official wants to set men free, to eliminate the color bar, and to serve as a civil servant, his guests claim.
Dr. Samuel J. Eldersveld discusses the two ways of looking at political parties: the structural or formal approach which views them as institutions with a particular type of organization and the functional approach which views them in terms of their actual activities. He answers the question what political parties are, discusses the special nature of political parties in democratic countries, the origin of political parties, and finally the functions of political parties as we know them today.
Stoessinger suggest that the rise of the new nationalism may characterize this era more than the East-West struggle. He discusses the two trends today; new nations and new unified supra-states, and discusses the main unifying factors common to the rise of new nationalistic states. These include neutralism, the quest for racial equality, religion as a unifying or dividing factor, the planned socialistic economy, and Westernization in its various manifestations. How can democracy export its ideas and ideals to countries that have little background and experience in democratic methods? This is the great problem of communication, concludes Stoessinger.
Examines the fundamental political ideas of fascism--rejection of the individual and deification of the state, distrust of reason and belief in force, and renunciation of freedom in favor of security. Uses documentary film footage to show the environment in which fascism rose in Germany and Italy immediately following World War I, and the disastrous results it brought until its defeat in 1945. Points out that fascism was not necessarily eradicated by World War II.
Discusses the decline of Western Europe's power and influence throughout the world since World War I. Depicts the change in Western Europe's status in international politics. Shows the effect which this decline has had on current problems of foreign relations. Illustrates throughout with film clips.
Introducing the program, host C. Dale Fuller indicates the industrial and scientific revolutions brought to the West increased life expectancy, reduction of disease, rarity of poverty and widespread luxurious leisurely living. The revolution in human expectations is the demand of the people of underdeveloped areas of the world for the same benefits. This program describes the magnitude of the needs of the underdeveloped areas and shows how these often produce violence. It analyzes what is being done about the demands of people in so called backward areas and what might be done. This revolution is one without slogans or armies, but it encompasses four-fifths of the people of the world and its outcome will shape much of humanity's future.
Discusses the revolution that has taken place in the colonial world and the present conflict between the remaining colonial powers of the West and the newly independent countries of Asia and Africa. Points out the major issues involved in this conflict by providing a condensed re-enactment of the UN committee debate on Algeria in 1955. Shows the reaction of the French delegation when the question of Algeria was voted upon in the General Assembly. Concludes by pointing out the problems involved in and methods of coping with the conflict over colonialism. (KRMA-TV) Kinescope.
Revolution/Reviews the development of Communism in Russia during the 20th century. Introduces the concept that Communism has two faces: one seen by the people of the United States and other advanced nations of the West, the second viewed by the underprivileged people of the world. Uses documentary film footage to show actual scenes of the Communist revolution; the rise of Lenin and Stalin; the effects of World War II; and the industrial, agricultural, and scientific changes in Russia. Summarizes the spread of Communism after World War II, and the outbreaks of violence in Poland, Berlin, and Hungary. Concludes with a brief statement concerning the best method of combating Communism's ongoing rise.
Discusses the debates in the United States since World War I over the issues of isolation versus involvement in world affairs. Concludes that the U.S. is permanently involved in world affairs but the debate will continue as to the meaning and context of involvement.
Outlines Argentine history and discusses the political and economic climate, with prospects for the future. Emphasizes Argentina's problems and possibilities. Shows pictures of the land and the people. (WTTW) Kinescope.
Teenagers from Pakistan, Vietnam, Germany, and Yugoslavia discuss socialism in Yugoslavia and Russian Communism. Questions the definition of the word "freedom." Analyzes the prospects of reunification for Germany and Vietnam. (WOR-TV) Kinescope.
Rabi and Viereck join Louis Lyons to discuss the freedom of the individual with their emphasis on the scientist and the artist. They agree there is no great cause for concern over the freedom today of the scientist or artist in terms of the freedoms and that they gain these freedoms through laws which bind them in their own professions. Included in the program is a spirited debate on scientific achievement and the necessity to combat mass determination of taste, particularly in the mass communications. Guests are Isidor I. Rabi, Higgins Professor of Physics, Columbia University; Nobel Prize winner in physics, 1944 and Peter Viereck, poet, professor of history, Mount Holyoke College; Pulitzer poet, 1949.
Mr. HV Kaltenborn, often called “Dean of American Commentators,” begins this program with a discussion of the United States’ role as an important force in world affairs as it came to be recognized at the time of Theodore Roosevelt. With Mrs. Dorothy Daniel, Pittsburgh journalist and broadcaster, Mr. Herb Morrison, Pittsburgh newscaster, and Mr. TFX Higgins, executive director of the Foreign Policy Association of Pittsburgh, he discusses the League of Nations, the Treaty of Versailles, Germany before World War I, dictators, Hitler, Mussolini, and dictatorship in the Western Hemisphere. He goes on to discuss colonialism and the USSR. In general, this program concerns itself with twentieth century history as seen through the eyes of a commentator.
Discusses United States foreign policy. Presents viewpoints concerning the relationship of foreign policy to military policy. Questions the possibility of atomic war. Concludes that the most important problem today is the use of force. Featured guests are Mr. Hans J. Morgenthau, University of Chicago, and Mr. S.L.A. Marshall, Editorial Writer for the Detroit News. (WOSU-TV) Film.
Discusses the effects of general pressure on Congressmen from a state, national, and world-wide basis. Examines the problems of lobbying. Features Dr. John T Dempsey, Professor of Political Science, University of Detroit, and members of Congress. (WYES-TV)
Discusses liberty as a changeable concept, the "climate"for liberty, and threats to freedom. Stresses individual responsibility to institutions, community, and government. Featured guests are Mr. Paul Hoffman, United States delegate to the United Nations General Assembly, and Dr. Clinton L. Rossiter, Professor of Government, Cornell University. (WOSU-TV) Film.
Discusses the influence of parties on Congressmen, the role of parties in Congress, the functions of the minority leader and whip, party responsibility, and responsibility to the electorate. Presents Committee Chairman Paul Butler and Meade Alcorn reviewing their roles in relation to Congress. Features Dr. John Dempsey, Professor of Political Science, University of Detroit, and members of Congress. (WYES-TV)
Discusses the purpose, successes, and failures of NATO, the prospects for extending its economic functions, and ways of making it more effective. Gives the history of NATO's formation and explains the financial contribution of each member country. (WTTW) Kinescope.
Discusses the formation of the Afro-Asian bloc, the declaration issued by it, and the possible influences this organization may have in world politics. Considers official United States reaction to the bloc and the bloc's possible influence on the formation of United States foreign policy. (WTTW) Kinescope.
Discusses attempts, from the Roman Empire to the present, at European unification. Examines the progress in economic unification through the Schuman Plan. Appraises the effects on the United States on the degree of unification in Europe. (WTTW) Kinescope.
resents the scope of international exchange programs now in process. Explains the various types of exchange. Discusses the Fulbright scholarships and shows a film on the experiment in international living in Austria. (WTTW) Kinescope.
Describes the lands of East Africa that are members of the British Commonwealth. Discusses variations in degree of self government and in the composition of populations. A native of Tanganuika presents his views on independence for his homeland and outlines a course of action. (WTTW) Kinescope.
Outlines the political history of the Congo and discusses the success of the Belgian colonial policy. A native of the Congo proposes a program for more self-government of the people. Stresses the economic importance of the Congo to Belgium and to the United States. (WTTW) Kinescope.
Discusses the political history of Brazil and her relations with the U.S. Considers Brazilian art, economic problems and potentialities, and the role of U.S. business in Brazil. A photo series presents the land and the people. (WTTW) Kinescope.
Describes the plan for Caribbean Federation and presents a historical survey of the area included. Shows a film on the area and peoples involved. Appraises the chances of success of this newest nation in the western hemisphere. (WTTW) Kinescope.
Dr. Henry Steele Commager discusses the political thinking of today. Explains the desirability of the inductive or pragmatic approach to problems of politics and society. Discusses the concepts of majority and minority rule, loyalty, and security in terms of theoretical dangers, fundamental truths, and moral absolutes. Points out the importance of experience, reality, and actuality in judging political action. (WQED) Kinescope.
Dr. Henry Steele Commager and his guests discuss freedom and security in today's society. Defines freedom as a natural right, a practical necessity, and a way of living. Considers the problem of freedom, security, and loyalty on a national as well as local level. (WQED) Kinescope.
Dr. Commager lectures on the subject of nationalism as something Americans take for granted but as something that is actually new in history. He also clarifies nationalism as a blessing rather than a curse to mankind. He discusses his theory that American nationalism differs in important ways from European or even Asiatic. He shows how nationalism came about as suggesting what the US can should do to mitigate the ravages of nationalism generally.
Surveys the political and economic evolution of Puerto Rico. Explains Puerto Rico's new political association with the U.S. Describes present Puerto Rican efforts to realize economic benefits through this new status. (WTTW) Kinescope.
Describes the influence of organized labor on governments and in the direction of foreign policy. Discusses the work of labor organizations and presents a film that shows the coming of the Industrial Revolution to various world areas. (WTTW) Kinescope.
Discusses the training of the men who represent the U.S. overseas. Describes the embassies and the men we have abroad, the history of our diplomatic service, and its present organization and budget. Considers the adequacy of the present program, with suggestions for the future. (WTTW) Kinescope.
Topic of discussion on this program is the actual organization of the major parties. Our lecturer considers the national characteristics of parties as opposed to the idea that each of them is a conglomeration of local political machines. He concludes with a look at the role the private citizen can and does play in party organization.
Discusses the early steps in the nominating process. Explains and illustrates the makeup of the national committee, the role of the national chairman, the importance of selecting a favorable convention site, apportionment of delegates, and state, county, and precinct organizations. Discusses a cartoon of the county chairman. (Dynamic Films) Film.
The panel takes up the importance of the national convention in drafting a party platform and important intra-party conflicts which have developed over the drafting of such platforms at recent conventions. Along these same lines, the panel considers the procedure used to draft the platform and the question of whether the platform is drafted to represent the policy position of the candidate or for the candidate to stand on.
A panel here considers the advantages and disadvantages of the convention systems as it now operates. Speakers also discuss suggestions for improving the convention as a nominating device, alternatives methods for nominating a president and vice president, and the problems and advantages of these alternatives.
Introduces the series AMERICAN POLITICS. Proposes to answer the following questions. (1) What are the nature, purpose, and methods of the major American political parties? (2) How are the parties' candidates nominated, including candidates for president and vice-president? (3) What have been the parties' records on the major issues of American politics? (KETC) Kinescope.
Discusses the primary system and its effect on the party system. Considers whether or not the primary system destroys party discipline, thus weakening the party, or, conversely does it give more power to the machine? (KETC) Kinescope.
Discusses the party records regarding individual freedom promised by the first amendment in the Bill of rights. Reviews the two parties' defense of these rights, especially in times when national security is threatened, and discusses the question of civil rights. (KETC) Kinescope.
Considers the whys and wherefores of defense spending as related to both foreign policy and domestic economic policy. Discusses the question, "Is there a partisan...Democratic or Republican...answer to the question of defense spending?" (KETC) Kinescope.
Convention floor strategy, nomination speeches and voting procedures are discussed in this program. Other topics consider include the techniques and practices used to influence the delegates in favor of particular candidates, the functions of nominating and seconding speeches and special problems connected with the nomination of the vice president.
Discusses motivations of candidates and the backgrounds of men who have run for president. Touches on men with a driving desire to be president, the "reluctant" candidates, the role of king-makers, and the occupations which have served as stepping-stones to the presidency. (Dynamic Films) Film.
Topic of program is the pre-convention strategy of the candidates, and content covers the factors which make a candidate available for his party’s nomination, the advantages and disadvantages of frankness on the part of an aspiring candidate, and the political hazards of the preference primary campaign,
National political leaders and newspapermen meet in a panel discussion to consider the main issues, strategies and personalities developing in the 1956 presidential campaign. Questions before the panel for consideration include: What will be the main issues in the coming conventions? Will they dominate the personalities or be controlled by the personalities? Who will be the influential leaders in each of the conventions? Who are the strongest candidates for the nominations of the parties? What is their relative strength? Is there a chance for a “dark horse” in either party?
Reviews the records of both parties in the area of conservation and use of our natural resources. Points out that controversy has been particularly sharp on the development of power resources. (KQED) Kinescope.
Summarizes the American nominating process from the early days to the emergence of the two-party system between 1830 and 1860 and the main political developments through 1952. Shows key Republican and Democratic candidates from 1912 through 1952 and headlines from the files of the New York Times dating back to the 19th century. (Dynamic Films) Films.
Discusses the responsibilities of the two-party system and explains the requirements of an effective party system. Includes discussion of "batting averages" of the Presidents with regard to the bills brought before them and in living up to party platforms. (KETC) Kinescope.
This program considers the role of the president and the significant changes in that role during the past half century. Interviews and discussion also consider the presidential role as administrator of public policy and political leader; the methods used for nomination of candidates for the presidency, and the development of the convention system.
Here, working politicians consider selection and preparation of the convention site, the role of the National Committee in the organization and operation of the convention, the functions of standing committees of the convention, and settlement of disputes in seating of contested delegates.
Discusses the competing interests or "factions" which existed as separate groups before political parties were organized. Explains that today these groups make themselves felt through competition with the parties for power and influence or by trying to gain dominance within a party. (KETC) Kinescope.
Discusses the national party convention as a nominating device. Considers control of the convention, the convention as a "sane" method for choosing candidates, and the nomination of the vice-presidential candidates. (KETC) Kinescope.
The following topics are discussed: Are the Russian people friendly? Are they afraid of their own government? Are they afraid of the American government? Is there a revival of religion in Russia? How do Russians living standards compare with American living standards? It is agreed by all that it would be helpful to the interests of American foreign policy if more Russians could visit this country and see for themselves who we are and how we live.
Reviews, through documentary scenes taken from the National Archives, the historic events which led to the entry of the United States into World War II. Records the failure of the League of Nations to take strong action against the aggressive acts of Japan, Italy, and Germany. Highlights the war of nerves, the successive Axis aggression, U.S. Neutrality Acts, the various agreements and pacts, and the declaration of war by England, France, and the United States.
Documentary of events leading to United States entry to World War II. Different stages through which American public opinion passed as events in Europe took place are described.
Mr. Peck opens the program by introducing a film clip which shows the raising of the free Indian flag at the UN. Mr. Talbot, Executive Director of American Universities Field Staff, explains the complexity of India. The discussion begins with a consideration of the Congress Party and its problems since independence, with references to Gandhi and Nehru. It is agreed that a real understanding of India depends on a knowledge of the country’s internal development. A five-minute film illustrates efforts to control malaria and the contrast between old and new methods of agriculture. It is concluded that the best way to fight Communism is to strengthen India internally, rather than press her to declare against Red China.
Mr. Albert Ravenholt, correspondent of the American Universities Field Staff and staff correspondent for the Chicago Daily News, and Dr. George A. Peek, Jr., assistant professor of political science at the University of Michigan and coordinator for the series, focus their first discussion of the "tension areas" in the Far East on Formosa. Mr. Ravenholt, considered one of the nation's best-informed men on the Far East, comments on the important strategic position of Formosa, the complicated internal "police state" condition of the Island, and how the situation affects the United States. He explains that the Chinese communists are building up their forces along the China coastline. They may be planning to attach Formosa directly, to capture the Chinese Nationalist held islands closer to the mainland, or to force a diplomatic settlement concerning the possession of Formosa. The latter would then involve the issues of recognition of Red China and admission of that country into the United Nations. The United States is sending to Formosa economic and military aid totaling three to four million dollars per year, Mr. Ravenholt points out. This aid not only consists of building up the defenses of the Island, but also improving the diet of the Nationalists soldiers, improving their uniforms, constructing air fields and bridges, and making agricultural improvements. Finally, Mr. Ravenholt stresses the need for the U.S. to begin thinking of what kind of support we are willing to extend to the Chinese Nationalists in the event of war, and the need for thinking about the kind of non-communist Chinese leadership which we would like to have evolve in the future.
The British colony of Hong Kong is the second "tension area" discussed by Mr. Ravenholt, Professor Peek, and their guest Dr. John W. Hall, director of the Center for Japanese Studies at the University of Michigan. Describing Hong Kong as a "window in the bamboo curtain," Mr. Ravenholt explains that the colony, made up of 76 islands and a peninsula, is the crossroads of the world where there is fairly free travel across the border into Red China. Here we are able to get a picture of what is happening in Communist China. The picture is not complete, he points out, but we are able to determine general trends in that vast country. It is now becoming apparent, according to Dr. Hall, that China is emerging as a major power for the first time in over 150 years. With this accumulation of power there is a natural "spilling over" into other countries such as North Korea. The grassroots level is the source of this new found power. The Communist Government of China has succeeded in organizing the peasantry. Mass organizations have been established with chapters in every village. Here the leaders are trying to change the Chinese society--trying to make it a community-centered society instead of the traditional family-centered society. The country has also been "westernized" and it now has the largest standing army in the world. Concluding the discussion, Mr. Ravenholt predicts that, in time, Red China will pose as a rival to the Soviet Union.
Discussion of Russia's industry and agriculture and what that means for Russia as a country and its potential threat to the United States. This is the second episode in the series and is the second out of three discussing Russia.
Mr. Peek suggests that the aspect of French politics most familiar and perplexing to Americans is the quick turnover of premiers. Mr. Wit states that this is less important than it seems, for through the rise and fall of twenty Prime Ministers, there were only four foreign ministers. A film shows French involvement abroad, toughing on French internal problems. It is agreed that France is an essential ally but no longer a first-class power. We should assist in bringing her commitment s into balance with her weakened capacity.
One of Miss Fosdick’s key points is that England’s allegiance to the Commonwealth countries comes before her allegiance to her other allies, including the United States. A film shows two of the strongest factors in recent British history –the blitz of London and Churchill. It is agreed that our differences with England are less significant than the policies we have in common and that we can learn a great deal from Britain’s long experience in international diplomacy.
"How stable is their political leadership? How strong is their military power?" Discussion of Russia's political leadership and military power, and what that means for Russia as a country and its potential threat to the United States. This is the first episode in the series and is the first out of three discussing Russia.
Professor Peek, Mr. Ravenholt, and Charles Davis, professor of geography at the University of Michigan and recently returned from the Far East, discuss the nature of the U. S. military aid in the Far East. Mr. Ravenholt points out that the U.S. is sending more military aid to the Far East than to Europe. This aid is directed primarily at Korea, Japan, Formosa, Siam, Indochina, and the Philippines. These six countries are in the "twilight zone," the zone between the bamboo curtain and the U.S. dominated Pacific. Two worlds are vying for this critical area. Members of the panel use two case studies to describe the aid extended to the Philippines and the aid directed toward Formosa. In the Philippines, U. S. officials made many mistakes such as mismanaging guerilla recognition after the war. After 1950 and the outbreak of the Korean War, however, the U.S. reorganized its methods of aid to the new republic and helped the Philippines in their thorough clean up of the Army. By contrast, Formosa has received more U.S. military aid than the Philippines. Here, however, there has been no attempt to educate the people in a democratic fashion or to help give the military the idea of being loyal to a country and a Constitution rather than to an individual. Here the U.S. has been successful in equipping the Island, but not in giving organizational assistance. The panel agrees, that, if we can send military aid and ideals, it is a cheap price for our boys' lives. The Philippine peoples are friendly toward the U.S. because the U.S. aid has been demonstrated to be in their interest. This is not so in other countries. Many of the Asiatic peoples feel they have no control over the American military aid. Ravenholt concludes the discussion by stressing the need for demonstrating that the U.S. aid is in the interest of the people in order for it to succeed.
Professor Peek, Mr. Ravenholt, and Professor John W. Lederle, Director of the Institute of Public Administration at the University of Michigan and recently returned from the Philippines, discuss the questions "How successful has the U.S. been in the Philippines?", "How strategic is the Philippines to the U.S.?", and "What does the future hold for the Philippines?" Since the Islands were ceded by Spain to the U.S. in 1898, the U. S. Government's mission there has been to prepare the people for independence. On July 4, 1946, the 7,150 islands finally became the Philippine Republic, but many problems remain. Lederle explains that the Philippine Government is similar to that of the U.S., but that the central government, with the president in control, is far more powerful than our own Federal Government. This accounts for the weakness at the grassroots level--the apathy of the private citizen toward the government. Mr. Ravenholt points out that the U.S. program to advance the educational system in the Islands has been successful. So, too, the public health program has progressed. However, the economic and social aspects of the situation have not been developed under American guidance. The panel agrees that the Philippine Islands are in a key position in the Far East. Aware of this the U.S. Government has built a large air base and is constructing its largest naval base in the area on Luzon Island. The future potential is great for the Philippines with its undeveloped natural resources, vast timber lands, and some 20 million acres of rich farm land yet to be plowed. It is conceivable that the Philippines could help to feed Japan and India if the Burma rice fields fall under communist control. The Philippines are independent, but the job of the U.S. is not over. New techniques need to be devised to develop the Philippine resources. And Asia is judging America by what happens in the Philippines.
This program stresses two main points: The internal problems of Japan and Japan’s position in the Far East as it affects the United States. A film segment suggests highlights of the history of Japan since World War II, and a second film clip illustrates the conditions of life in Japan, pointing up the great difficulty of such a small country in providing enough food for such an enormous population. It is agreed that the key issue of American policy is how to convert a defeated, completely demilitarized enemy into a strong ally against Communism.
In discussing communism as an internal problem, students from Britain, Norway, India and the Philippines deal in a rather inclusive manner with this difficult issue. In a most lively discussion, the panelists examine the topic from numerous angles, but stress particularly how we can at the same time control communism and protect civil liberties. Whether politicians should deal with internal communism, and whether it would be advisable to outlaw the communist party are also considered. In this connection several related problems are brought to light: Would the party be more difficult to control if it were forced completely underground; would there be danger of confusing liberals and other nonconformists with communists? An attempt is also made to define subversion, and several opinions are presented. Whether or not congressional committees are operating fairly and successfully is also discussed. One student expresses the fear that men may be unnecessarily hurt because of the fact that a committee may publicly suggest that he is guilty of some act, and yet is not empowered actually to establish that guilt or innocence. While much of the discussion centers, around the problem in the United States, several of the students describe what is being done in their own country about the problem, and the point is made that the solution for one country may not necessarily be the answer for another.
Encyclopaedia Britannica Films, Harold D. Lasswell
Contrasts democracy and despotism and explains four conditions in a community essential to democracy. Points out that respect for each other and power in government must be shared by all thepeople. Asserts that shared power and shared respect in turn depend on balanced economic distribution and enlightenment through an uncontrolled, socially responsible information system.
The problem of communist aggression is discussed by representatives of India, the Philippines, Korea, and Norway. This discussion concerns itself mostly with the situation in the East, since three of the four panelists come from that region. Much of the discussion involves the recent emergence of strong nationalist tendencies in the far East. The delegate from the Philippines explains how the leaders of these young countries, only recently having gained their independence, are loathe to consider regional federation out of a fear that they will once again sacrifice that independence. Some of the problems facing Korea in her attempts to reunite are also discussed at some length. The problem of admitting Red China into the United Nations is also examined, and the possibility of using that admission as a bargaining point to curtail further aggression, or to obtain some workable solution to the Korean problem. Whether or not Japan should be re-armed, and under whose auspices, is another question the group considers. This raised several interesting viewpoints, particularly the fact that there is still considerable suspicion of Japan by other peoples in that area. There is also much consideration of the role of the United Nations in curtailing aggression, and of whether or not the organization could act more efficiently if more of the Red bloc, such as China, were members.