This program summarizes the major points which have been brought out in the series and evaluates Nationalism and Colonialism in terms of the basic problems now facing the world community – the paradox that he liberal idea of self-determination of nations may result in divisiveness and fragmentation of the world’s energies and resources at the very time when man’s power to unleash the forces of nature has made necessary the highest degree of international harmony and worldwide cooperation. How has the world community organized to deal with National-Colonial power? What is the future of Nationalism and Colonialism? These are the questions answered by Stoessinger in this program. Films of Philippine diplomat Carlos P. Romulo are included in this program.
Convention floor strategy, nomination speeches and voting procedures are discussed in this program. Other topics consider include the techniques and practices used to influence the delegates in favor of particular candidates, the functions of nominating and seconding speeches and special problems connected with the nomination of the vice president.
Discusses the origin, development, and rise of political interest groups in America and their role in the legislative process. Describes the organization and techniques of interest groups, and reviews legislation governing their activities. (University of Michigan Television) Kinescope.
Discusses the voting behavior of the public in the 1952 election. Compares the public participation in the 1952 election with participation in other countries. Classifies the eligible voters into three groups, and discusses significant aspects of each group. Presents reasons for people voting as they do. Reviews the shifts in parties controlling the federal government since 1916. (University of Michigan Television) Kinescope.
Discusses motivations of candidates and the backgrounds of men who have run for president. Touches on men with a driving desire to be president, the "reluctant" candidates, the role of king-makers, and the occupations which have served as stepping-stones to the presidency. (Dynamic Films) Film.
Discusses United States foreign policy. Presents viewpoints concerning the relationship of foreign policy to military policy. Questions the possibility of atomic war. Concludes that the most important problem today is the use of force. Featured guests are Mr. Hans J. Morgenthau, University of Chicago, and Mr. S.L.A. Marshall, Editorial Writer for the Detroit News. (WOSU-TV) Film.
Discusses pre-convention activity. Considers the influence of public opinion and public opinion polls, the role of the campaign manager, and the strategy for winning delegates in both states that pick delegates by conventions and states that hold primary elections. Shows scenes from the 1952 primary campaigns in New Hampshire and Nebraska. (Dynamic Films) Film.
Topic of program is the pre-convention strategy of the candidates, and content covers the factors which make a candidate available for his party’s nomination, the advantages and disadvantages of frankness on the part of an aspiring candidate, and the political hazards of the preference primary campaign,
Discusses the effects of general pressure on Congressmen from a state, national, and world-wide basis. Examines the problems of lobbying. Features Dr. John T Dempsey, Professor of Political Science, University of Detroit, and members of Congress. (WYES-TV)
National political leaders and newspapermen meet in a panel discussion to consider the main issues, strategies and personalities developing in the 1956 presidential campaign. Questions before the panel for consideration include: What will be the main issues in the coming conventions? Will they dominate the personalities or be controlled by the personalities? Who will be the influential leaders in each of the conventions? Who are the strongest candidates for the nominations of the parties? What is their relative strength? Is there a chance for a “dark horse” in either party?
Surveys the political and economic evolution of Puerto Rico. Explains Puerto Rico's new political association with the U.S. Describes present Puerto Rican efforts to realize economic benefits through this new status. (WTTW) Kinescope.
Discusses the criticisms of the present party system and evaluates proposed changes. Points out the changes in the election system that would be necessary for any party reform. Suggests that any reforms would depend on greater public participation in the parties, which in turn would create less need for party reform. (University of Michigan Television) kinescope.
Reviews the records of both parties in the area of conservation and use of our natural resources. Points out that controversy has been particularly sharp on the development of power resources. (KQED) Kinescope.
"How stable is their political leadership? How strong is their military power?" Discussion of Russia's political leadership and military power, and what that means for Russia as a country and its potential threat to the United States. This is the first episode in the series and is the first out of three discussing Russia.
Summarizes the American nominating process from the early days to the emergence of the two-party system between 1830 and 1860 and the main political developments through 1952. Shows key Republican and Democratic candidates from 1912 through 1952 and headlines from the files of the New York Times dating back to the 19th century. (Dynamic Films) Films.
Presents an historical survey of colonialism as practiced by Britain and France. Discusses the methods of rule and the phases of colonization of each. Uses film clips, phots and charts to show how each has moved from direct colonial rule to cooperation with their colonies.
Reviews the activities of the United States in the area of colonialism. Discusses the colonies of the U.S. past and present. Outlines the course of action taken in helping the various territories in achieving self-government.
Discusses the responsibilities of the two-party system and explains the requirements of an effective party system. Includes discussion of "batting averages" of the Presidents with regard to the bills brought before them and in living up to party platforms. (KETC) Kinescope.
A historian and a geographer from the University of Michigan, Professor John W. Hall and Professor George Kish, join Professor Peek and Mr. Ravenholt to discuss the problems of rural Asia. The rural Asiatic situation is summed up simply by saying that in that part of the world there are too many people living on too little land and using primitive methods and equipment. Most of the Asiatic people are living at the subsistence level while many witness starvation yearly. Professor Hall displays pictures he took while in Japan recently to illustrate the primitive buildings that house the Japanese farmer and the outmoded farming methods which these farmers are practicing today. The panel discusses these problems of too little food supply and tremendous population growth. Another problem is the condition of the concentration of land ownership. In the struggle to win this "twilight zone" over to their side, both East and West have social reforms to alleviate this condition. The Soviets offer the idea of collective farming. According to Professor Kish, however, this idea is gradually being replaced by the state ownership plan. The democratic plan, on the other hand, advocates individual ownership of the farm land. In order for this plan to be effective, however, the attitude of the Asiatic farmer must be changed--he must be convinced that he can better himself. Final success, then, depends upon the U.S. exporting skills, techniques and machinery along with financial support to the rural areas of Asia.
Discusses present day attitudes toward colonialism and how they differ from the colonial ideal of the past. Sir Andrew Cohen, ex-colonial official in Africa, answers questions concerning the making of colonial policy, how the colonial mind has changed and what the modern colonial official sees as his function.
Stoessinger analyzes the modern colonial mind in a time when “Colonial Official” has become a bad word phrase. He interviews French and Belgian colonial officials in an attempt to show the changing role of the colonial official in the world today. The modern colonial official wants to set men free, to eliminate the color bar, and to serve as a civil servant, his guests claim.
Reviews the progress of the Communist Party in Japan from pre-war days to the present. Includes film footage showing the release from prison of leading communist leaders just after World War II. Discusses the high degree of trained leadership, the party and the party's influence in politics.
Discusses liberty as a changeable concept, the "climate"for liberty, and threats to freedom. Stresses individual responsibility to institutions, community, and government. Featured guests are Mr. Paul Hoffman, United States delegate to the United Nations General Assembly, and Dr. Clinton L. Rossiter, Professor of Government, Cornell University. (WOSU-TV) Film.
Examines the fundamental political ideas of fascism--rejection of the individual and deification of the state, distrust of reason and belief in force, and renunciation of freedom in favor of security. Uses documentary film footage to show the environment in which fascism rose in Germany and Italy immediately following World War I, and the disastrous results it brought until its defeat in 1945. Points out that fascism was not necessarily eradicated by World War II.
Professor Peek, Mr. Ravenholt, and Charles Davis, professor of geography at the University of Michigan and recently returned from the Far East, discuss the nature of the U. S. military aid in the Far East. Mr. Ravenholt points out that the U.S. is sending more military aid to the Far East than to Europe. This aid is directed primarily at Korea, Japan, Formosa, Siam, Indochina, and the Philippines. These six countries are in the "twilight zone," the zone between the bamboo curtain and the U.S. dominated Pacific. Two worlds are vying for this critical area. Members of the panel use two case studies to describe the aid extended to the Philippines and the aid directed toward Formosa. In the Philippines, U. S. officials made many mistakes such as mismanaging guerilla recognition after the war. After 1950 and the outbreak of the Korean War, however, the U.S. reorganized its methods of aid to the new republic and helped the Philippines in their thorough clean up of the Army. By contrast, Formosa has received more U.S. military aid than the Philippines. Here, however, there has been no attempt to educate the people in a democratic fashion or to help give the military the idea of being loyal to a country and a Constitution rather than to an individual. Here the U.S. has been successful in equipping the Island, but not in giving organizational assistance. The panel agrees, that, if we can send military aid and ideals, it is a cheap price for our boys' lives. The Philippine peoples are friendly toward the U.S. because the U.S. aid has been demonstrated to be in their interest. This is not so in other countries. Many of the Asiatic peoples feel they have no control over the American military aid. Ravenholt concludes the discussion by stressing the need for demonstrating that the U.S. aid is in the interest of the people in order for it to succeed.
Discusses the Khrushchev era and interprets the policies of his regime. Provides details of Khrushchev's ascension to power and describes the differences between him and Stalin. Features special guest Merrill Spalding, research associate at the Hoover Institution and former professor of Russian history at Stanford University.
Discusses the Standing Committee, functions of the Committee system, and the role of the majority and minority leaders in congress. Presents opinions on seniority and the selection of committee members and officers. Features Dr. John T. Dempsey, Professor of Political Science, University of Detroit, and members of Congress. (WYES-TV) Film and kinescope.
Features significant excerpts from the preceding 12 programs and lists the many myths of communism. These include (1) freedom for the working man, (2) communism as a genuine expression of the desire of subject peoples, (3) the dictatorship of the proletariat which became dictatorship over the proletariat, (4) Stalin and Lenin as heroes of the proletariat, and (5) communism as an independent political philosophy.
In this program, Stoessinger points out the continuity of imperialism from Czarist Russia to Russia today, Russia’s attitude toward nationalism being that it should be ruthlessly crushed. The Soviet’s techniques of empire building are several including playing nationalistic groups against each other and exploiting anti-fascist resistance to its own gain. In the past, nationalism has caused many blocks to Communism and they have constantly had to change their techniques. A former Albanian freedom fighter is interviewed.
Stoessinger suggest that the rise of the new nationalism may characterize this era more than the East-West struggle. He discusses the two trends today; new nations and new unified supra-states, and discusses the main unifying factors common to the rise of new nationalistic states. These include neutralism, the quest for racial equality, religion as a unifying or dividing factor, the planned socialistic economy, and Westernization in its various manifestations. How can democracy export its ideas and ideals to countries that have little background and experience in democratic methods? This is the great problem of communication, concludes Stoessinger.
Discusses trends in the nominating process and the changes in sectional voting patterns. Briefly mentions the influence of third parties and splinter candidates. Summarizes criticisms of the political convention and the primary system, concluding that the process, whatever its weakness, has proved workable. Considers the influence of television on American elections. (Dynamic Films) Film.
This program considers the role of the president and the significant changes in that role during the past half century. Interviews and discussion also consider the presidential role as administrator of public policy and political leader; the methods used for nomination of candidates for the presidency, and the development of the convention system.
Here, working politicians consider selection and preparation of the convention site, the role of the National Committee in the organization and operation of the convention, the functions of standing committees of the convention, and settlement of disputes in seating of contested delegates.
Discusses the competing interests or "factions" which existed as separate groups before political parties were organized. Explains that today these groups make themselves felt through competition with the parties for power and influence or by trying to gain dominance within a party. (KETC) Kinescope.
Professor Peek, Mr. Ravenholt, and Professor John W. Lederle, Director of the Institute of Public Administration at the University of Michigan and recently returned from the Philippines, discuss the questions "How successful has the U.S. been in the Philippines?", "How strategic is the Philippines to the U.S.?", and "What does the future hold for the Philippines?" Since the Islands were ceded by Spain to the U.S. in 1898, the U. S. Government's mission there has been to prepare the people for independence. On July 4, 1946, the 7,150 islands finally became the Philippine Republic, but many problems remain. Lederle explains that the Philippine Government is similar to that of the U.S., but that the central government, with the president in control, is far more powerful than our own Federal Government. This accounts for the weakness at the grassroots level--the apathy of the private citizen toward the government. Mr. Ravenholt points out that the U.S. program to advance the educational system in the Islands has been successful. So, too, the public health program has progressed. However, the economic and social aspects of the situation have not been developed under American guidance. The panel agrees that the Philippine Islands are in a key position in the Far East. Aware of this the U.S. Government has built a large air base and is constructing its largest naval base in the area on Luzon Island. The future potential is great for the Philippines with its undeveloped natural resources, vast timber lands, and some 20 million acres of rich farm land yet to be plowed. It is conceivable that the Philippines could help to feed Japan and India if the Burma rice fields fall under communist control. The Philippines are independent, but the job of the U.S. is not over. New techniques need to be devised to develop the Philippine resources. And Asia is judging America by what happens in the Philippines.
Discusses the influence of parties on Congressmen, the role of parties in Congress, the functions of the minority leader and whip, party responsibility, and responsibility to the electorate. Presents Committee Chairman Paul Butler and Meade Alcorn reviewing their roles in relation to Congress. Features Dr. John Dempsey, Professor of Political Science, University of Detroit, and members of Congress. (WYES-TV)
Discusses the decline of Western Europe's power and influence throughout the world since World War I. Depicts the change in Western Europe's status in international politics. Shows the effect which this decline has had on current problems of foreign relations. Illustrates throughout with film clips.
Introducing the program, host C. Dale Fuller indicates the industrial and scientific revolutions brought to the West increased life expectancy, reduction of disease, rarity of poverty and widespread luxurious leisurely living. The revolution in human expectations is the demand of the people of underdeveloped areas of the world for the same benefits. This program describes the magnitude of the needs of the underdeveloped areas and shows how these often produce violence. It analyzes what is being done about the demands of people in so called backward areas and what might be done. This revolution is one without slogans or armies, but it encompasses four-fifths of the people of the world and its outcome will shape much of humanity's future.
Discusses the revolution that has taken place in the colonial world and the present conflict between the remaining colonial powers of the West and the newly independent countries of Asia and Africa. Points out the major issues involved in this conflict by providing a condensed re-enactment of the UN committee debate on Algeria in 1955. Shows the reaction of the French delegation when the question of Algeria was voted upon in the General Assembly. Concludes by pointing out the problems involved in and methods of coping with the conflict over colonialism. (KRMA-TV) Kinescope.
Discusses the duties of Congress including legislative and law. Points out the necessity for bureaucracy. Presents a brief history of Congress. Questions the current role of congress and how it has changed. Features Dr. John T. Dempsey, Professor of Political Science, university of Detroit, and members of Congress. (WYES-TV) Kinescope.
Describes the influence of organized labor on governments and in the direction of foreign policy. Discusses the work of labor organizations and presents a film that shows the coming of the Industrial Revolution to various world areas. (WTTW) Kinescope.
Revolution/Reviews the development of Communism in Russia during the 20th century. Introduces the concept that Communism has two faces: one seen by the people of the United States and other advanced nations of the West, the second viewed by the underprivileged people of the world. Uses documentary film footage to show actual scenes of the Communist revolution; the rise of Lenin and Stalin; the effects of World War II; and the industrial, agricultural, and scientific changes in Russia. Summarizes the spread of Communism after World War II, and the outbreaks of violence in Poland, Berlin, and Hungary. Concludes with a brief statement concerning the best method of combating Communism's ongoing rise.
Discusses the national party convention as a nominating device. Considers control of the convention, the convention as a "sane" method for choosing candidates, and the nomination of the vice-presidential candidates. (KETC) Kinescope.
Discusses the training of the men who represent the U.S. overseas. Describes the embassies and the men we have abroad, the history of our diplomatic service, and its present organization and budget. Considers the adequacy of the present program, with suggestions for the future. (WTTW) Kinescope.
Discusses the debates in the United States since World War I over the issues of isolation versus involvement in world affairs. Concludes that the U.S. is permanently involved in world affairs but the debate will continue as to the meaning and context of involvement.
Discusses the characteristics of a "good" candidate in terms of age, religion, and home state. Points out that men from populous states stand the best chance of receiving the nomination. Also discusses favorite sons, dark horse candidates, and the nomination of candidates previously defeated.
This program stresses two main points: The internal problems of Japan and Japan’s position in the Far East as it affects the United States. A film segment suggests highlights of the history of Japan since World War II, and a second film clip illustrates the conditions of life in Japan, pointing up the great difficulty of such a small country in providing enough food for such an enormous population. It is agreed that the key issue of American policy is how to convert a defeated, completely demilitarized enemy into a strong ally against Communism.