Traces the history of computer development from the first mechanical calculators to ENIAC, the first electronic computer. Explains in lay terms how a modern digital computer stores both data and instructions in number form.
Demonstrates the role of perception in handling the processing information from the environment and the way in which our personalities affect our perception. Reviews the research of Dr. Herman Witkin of the State University of New York Medical Center, Dr. Eleanor Gibson of Cornell University, and Dr. Richard D. Walk of George Washington University.
Visits a number of international trade fairs and identifies their purposes and contributions to the United States agricultural program. Illustrates ways United States agricultural products are introduced to actual and potential customers. Studies some of the agricultural export items which have been favorably influenced by the trade fair. Proclaims the importance of foreign markets as an outlet for our agricultural surplus.
Describes the operation, principles, and scientific use of reactors. Shows types of research reactors make possible. Describes the Gamma Ray Spectrometer, the Neutron Chopper, and the new Janus reactor which is designed specifically for high and low level radiation experiments in biology.
Presents a view of the guidance process and indicates the great number of individuals involved. urges efforts to estimate the potential of each individual, to interpret to him and his parents the opportunities available to him, and to provide him with educational experiences which will assures his best development.
Huyghens (HY-gunz) discovery that Saturn is surrounded by rings which look different on earth at different times led to considerable speculation as to the nature of the rings. Some scientists believed they were solid, others maintained they were made up of particles of matter, as is actually the case. Among Huyghens’ other discoveries was the triangular expanse on Mars (“Syrtis Major”), which may be an expanse of vegetation. He also invented a very fine eyepiece, still used by physicists, which overcomes color spread. And “Huyghens Principle” regarding light spread is also constantly in use. Despite early illness and his resulting weak constitution, Huyghens was able to make discoveries that have been inestimable use to scientists who came after him.
Shows from the point-of-view of a bus driver on the job what happens during a day's run in a well-equipped city bus. Covers all aspects of the driver's job, including his preparations of the trip, his driving skills, his courtesy in dealing with passengers, and his responsibility for their comfort and safety. Uses scenes in the garage and the office of the bus company to illustrate problems involved in maintaining an efficient transportation system.
Discusses research being conducted at the Carnegie Institute of Technology to evolve new theories about mental processes. Shows Dr. Bert Green demonstrating his computer experiments with the perception of motion and depth, Dr. Herbert Simon using the computer to present his theory of how human beings memorize, and Dr. Allan Newall showing how the computer was responsible for creating a new theory about human problem solving.
Indicates that the problem of getting to Mars of Venus, heretofore a concern only to science fiction writers and afficionados, has now become an international obsession. Shows that the strides being made in the space race would not be possible were it not for the work of Copernicus and other scientists of his stature. States that it was Copernicus who realized that the earth is not the center of the universe but merely one of many heavenly bodies, all moving according to a definite system.
Dr. Ray Koppelman, University of Chicago, American Institute of Biological Sciences
Diversity of life resulting from evolution: recognition and treatment of diversity –definitions and taxonomic approaches; results of diversity in the plant kingdom; results of diversity in the animal kingdom, with particular emphasis on the evolution of man; diversity in time –divergence, convergence, extinction, the fossil record diversity in space –ecological relations in a habitat.
Ellis Katzman, Elbert C. Weaver, John A. Skarulis, William H. Pasfield, Ross Lowell, Herman J. Engel, Robert Braverman, Peter Robinson, Geraldine Lerner, Max J. Rosenberg, Fisher Scientific Company
Demonstrates the differences between saturated, unsaturated, and supersaturated solutions; that solutions are dynamic, not static in character; and also shows suspensions and colloidal dispersions. Presents characteristics of solutions and explains insolubility, solutions without chemical reactions, mixtures, suspensions, and the Tyndall effect in colloidal dispersions.
The first program deals largely with Steichen’s life and his development as a photographer. He comments on the first camera he use (a Kodak), the years before he came to New York City, his “romantic” period in the 1890’s, his work with photography for advertising, his stay in France when he was for a while very active as a painter, his reactions to modern art, and his feelings about the influence of painting on his photography. Steichen’s photographs are used throughout the program to complement his description of life and work, and he often gives detailed analysis of these photographs.
The first part of the program is devoted to Steichen’s memorable and world-famous exhibit, “The Family of Man.” Steichen explains his preoccupation with the forms and development of human life; the exhibit, and many of the photographs shown during the course of the program, emphasize the preoccupation. Steichen and Rene d’Harnoncourt also discuss his association with the fashion magazine Vanity Fair, his ideas on journalistic photography, and his work in Hollywood and in advertising, his photographic experiments, his experiences during World War I, his exhibitions and the ideas governing them, his work now in progress, and his plans for future exhibitions.
The third program consists of a detailed analysis of photographs. Steichen and a young photographer move from picture to picture while Steichen explains the mechanical and technical problems they presented and the ideas or interests that prompted his focusing on one or another subject. They also examine pictures taken by such noted photographers as Lewis Hines and Edward Weston. Of particular interest are Steichen’s comments on symbolist photography and his reasons for abandoning experiments he began in this area. At the program’s end, Steichen speaks generally about the future of photography, and of the things we have to learn about and from our fellow man.
The format of this final program is different from that of the preceding three. On the sound track is a pre-recorded conversation with Steichen, and on the screen is a series of Steichen’s own photographs, and those of other photographers, from the “Family of Man” collection. Steichen’s remarks form a commentary explaining and describing some general principles of photography, and the details of completing this particular exhibit.The basic element, says Steichen, is love: love of life and of mankind.
Discusses the future in terms of the areas that now interest scientists at the Argonne National Laboratories. Indicates problems that are still to be solved concerning the effects of radiation, the peaceful use of radiation, and the dangers of radiation.
Much of today’s exploration of space would be impossible without the early astronomical discoveries of Hipparchus (hih-PAR-kus). According to Dr. Posin, the greatest of these discoveries was that“the tip of the axis of the earth, through the centuries, make a circle in the heavens.” With the help of work done by scientists before him, such as Archimedes, Hipparchus was able to find ways of determining longitudes on earth and in the sky, thereby laying important groundwork for astronomical discoveries through the ages.
Introduces the series and establishes some basic knowledge about radiation which is necessary for a clear understanding of the following programs. Discusses the meaning of radiation, its natural sources, and the various forms it takes. Using a variety of devices points out the difference between alpha and beta particles and between gamma and X-rays.
Discusses the work of Newton, who was born the day Galileo died, and was a contemporary and friend of Huyghens. Describes Newton's Principia Mathematica, one of the greatest scientific books ever written which was published through his friendship with Halley, another outstanding scientist of the time. Briefly discusses Newton's most important contributions to science which were his theories of light and prisms, and of motion and bodies in space.
As a boy, Maxwell was subject to the brutal teasing of his classmates. As an adult he met and solved several scientific problems that had been perplexing his contemporaries. He won a prize for demonstrating mathematically the nature of the rings around Saturn. But his most important achievement, which was at once the result of Faraday’s experiments and the beginning of much important new work by later scientists in physics and electricity, was his contribution to the study of electromagnetics and his predictions of the existence of electromagnetic waves. The processes and apparatuses he used are sketched in detail by Dr. Posin. The topic is a complicated one, but worth the attention of anyone who intends to pursue modern physics on his own.
States that only a lack of engineers and adequate materials kept the helicopter from being an actuality during da Vinci's lifetime. Pictures this great inventor creating workable plans for the helicopter, the submarine, and hundreds of other "modern" inventions--all backed by scientific data. According to Dr. Posin, Leonardo "was always lured by the subtle, the fleeting, the unknown--this was the artist in him. Yet he searched for exact reasons and causes and logic--this was the scientist."
Scientists discover things either by making plans for experiments and then following them doggedly, or by pursuing the implications of unexpected events or findings. It was in the latter way that Michael Faraday made one of his most important discoveries in the field of electricity. Dr. Posin discusses the men preceding Faraday, who had worked with electricity -- Volta, Benjamin Franklin, the Danish scientist HC Oersted (1777-1851) -- and the discoveries each made. He then turns to the work, and some pictures and models of the apparatus, for which Faraday is best known. In particular, he demonstrates the experiment by which Faraday proved that magnetism can produce electricity. He also performs an experiment with electrically charged fish like the electric eel or the Gymnotus.
William C. “Bill” Smith of Oregon Educational Broadcasting, who hosts and narrates this group of programs, takes youngsters on a day’s jaunt to an Oregon “egg factory,” a dairy farm and a dairy manufacturing plant to show them that, though milk, butter and eggs still come from the same old reliable sources, the ways which they are processed have changed considerably. On a farm where 100,000 laying hens produce enough eggs in one day to feed cities the size of Schenectady; New York; St. Joseph, MO; and Kalamazoo, Michigan, we see how eggs are gathered, cleaned and graded, and sent to market. On the dairy farms we see modern milking methods and milk being transported to a manufacturing plant. Processes involved in bottling milk and making cheese are seen, and the ice cream bar section is visited.
Discusses whether the artist is free to express himself regardless of public understanding, public acceptance, or public rejection. Dramatizes the incidents surrounding a citizen's donation of a statue for a town square. The artist commissioned to do the work has fashioned a piece of iron sculpture which depicts what he feels is the horse's spirit instead of its outward form. At the dedication of the statue in the town square, the crowd voices mixed reactions to the sculpture. More and stronger objections are climaxed in attempt to destroy the iron horse. The donor finally removes the iron horse to his own estate where, on top of a rise, it dominates the landscape in splendid exile.
Points out that genetic damage is one of the most serious effects of radiation and shows how the Atomic Energy Commission's genetics research program is geared to learn how radiation damages cells and what the long term effects of such damage might be. Presents Douglas Grahn, a geneticist in the Division of the Biology Medicine, explaining how radiation causes mutations and how these mutations are passed on to succeeding generations. Describes the work of Herman Slatis, also a geneticist in the Division of Biology Medicine, with fruit flies and induced mutations. Discusses fallout and its implications.
Describes research related to atomic structure through which the scientist is attempting to discover the structure of the universe. Shows how particle accelerators produce intense beams of radiation which enable study of the structure of the atom, the nucleus, and the basic components of the nucleus. Explains how accelerators operate and shows one of the world's largest particle accelerators, the Zero Gradient Synchrotron, a $50,000,000 machine still under construction. Describes the sub-nuclear particles in which the high energy physicist is interested and briefly discusses the concept of matter and anti-matter.
Explores the nature of technology itself and demonstrates its use, both to increase the competitor's share of the market and to expand the range of the market. Shows that industrial technology's first attempt is to reduce production costs or to give the product an edge over its competition with the hope of greater profits. Shows, too, that technology has served to create whole new markets--for example, the harnessing of electricity. Demonstrates that industrial research and development have progressed from the stage of the lone inventor to that of the highly-organized corporate effort.
This program is concerned with the role of the business manager, the person who brings together the land, the resources, the necessary labor, and the capital or means of production and sets all these turning to manufacture the things that people need or want. To indicate the functions of the business manager, the program visits a laundry – operated as a proprietorship, a filling station – operated as a partnership, and a large corporation. In dealing with the corporation, the program shows the varied responsibilities of Donald Douglas, general manager of the Reflective Products Division of the Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company.
Thomas F. Barton, Daisy M. Jones, Roger Niemeyer, James W. Taylor, Indiana University Audio-Visual Center
Compares two dairy farms--one in Southeastern Wisconsin and the other in Central New York State. Shows the land use and cultural practices which reflect adaptation to such elements of the physical environment as topography, soil, precipitation, temperature, and length of growing season. Describes such man-made conditions that influence the marketing of milk as the proximity of farms to urban areas, sanitation requirements, and transportation and refrigeration facilities.
Shows bone to be active, living substance, constantly remodeling and reforming itself. Emphasizes the importance of bone to the entire body as a supplier of calcium and illustrates the systems by which this calcium gets from bone to blood and vice versa. Effects of radiation are illustrated in photographs of bone cross-sections.
Comments on the fact that the computer revolution represents a fundamentally different kind of advance because, unlike past industrial advances, the computer manipulates processed information at incredible speeds. Explains the problem of what to use as a universal "machine language."
Explores the natural process of aging and the methods used in its study. Indicates that aging might be considered one of the deleterious side effects of radiation. Shows that since radiation injury resembles natural aging in so many ways, radiation has proved one of the best ways of studying the aging process. Points out how research on aging is conducted in the Argonne National Laboratory's animal quarters and in low level gamma irradiation room.
How does the air cleanse itself of poisonous substances, including radioactive substances? Philip Gustafson, a biologist in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, and Henry Moses of the Division of Radiological Physics, examine atmospheric fallout and methods now being used to determine and study such fallout. They relate current fallout studies to man and to his environment.
Illustrates how the use of radioactive isotopes in the study of cell division and in medical therapy has helped man overcome disease. Demonstrates some of the many helpful and healthful uses of atomic energy.
Acknowledge as one of the greatest observational astronomers who ever lived, Tycho (TY-ko) Brahe (BRAH-ee) managed to make enormous strides without the help of telescopes. During his lifetime he discovered that comets are the product of interplanetary space rather than of the earth, as had long been believed. His inventions included a number of highly accurate instruments, and among his publications was a most valuable table of refractions. Toward the end of his life, he was joined by Johannes Kepler, who functioned as Brahe’s assistant and, after the great astronomer’s death, continued the work his friend had begun.
Explains that Wellmet House attempts to rehabilitate the mentally ill not by gaining conforming behavior but by helping them relate to other people in natural and unstructured ways. Points out that half of the residents are mentally ill and the other half are college students from nearby universities who staff Wellmet House. Emphasizes the need for each patient to find individual expression. Shows patients and staff at dinner, parties, the local pub, and a house meeting.
When properly handled in the laboratory, radioactive materials constitute little danger. This program shows the precautions used in working with radiation as well as the research carried on at Argonne to gain more knowledge about handling radiation. “Hot Caves” (a cave is a radiation chamber) using mechanical slave manipulators, caves using the only electronic manipulators in the country, and giant caves using heavy duty manipulators illustrate the safety methods mentioned. Another demonstration outlines the method used to dispose of radioactive waste material. Guests are Stephen Lawroski, director of the Chemical Engineering Division and Coordinator of Engineering Research and Development, and Victor Munnecke, assistant director of the Chemical Engineering Division.